About Carbon API-based applications

Carbon applications are closely related to applications traditionally written for the Mac OS. They make use of an API which has been optimized to take advantage of OS X's ability to allow for memory protection and take advantage of Apple's graphical interface, Aqua.

Carbon is based on the programming tools available for MacOS 9 and earlier, and allows a smooth path for bringing applications to OS X. Apple is providing strong support for this programming environment, and the libraries provided have been maturing for over 15 years.

Carbon Languages:

C Family of Languages:
    C, is probably the most common core programming language, created in 1970 to code operating systems. C code is flexible and highly portable.

    C++, a descendant of Algol and Simula and a superset of C. It allows for a great deal of flexibility in data structures, including a multiple-inheritance-type object-oriented programming.

BASIC Family of Languages:
    FutureBASIC provides a compiled BASIC development environment.

    Metal is a BASIC language metacompiler with rich resources.

    Omikron Basic is a BASIC version, originally for Atari computers.

    PureBasic is a cross-platform BASIC implementation.

    REALbasic is an object-oriented descendant of BASIC. Programs can cross-compiles for Mac and Windows. A growing developer community has brought a large number of Carbon apps to the platform, and the developer tools and libraries are abundant.

    TNT Basic is yet another BASIC development environment, taylored to the 2-d game market.

Other Languages (alphabetically):
    Ada has Carbon bindings and available out of the box.

    APLX is a version of the APL language. APLX cross-compiles with Windows, Linux and AIX.

    Eiffel can compile using the Carbon frameworks using the EiffelCarbon API.

    (Forth) MacForth is a long-standing Forth implementation for Macs.

    (Forth) Mops is an object-oriented dialect of Forth derived from Neon.

    (Fortran) Pro Fortran gives a very powerful development environment for the creation of programs which can handle high-end scientific, mathematical and visualization needs. Absoft's editor allows for Fortran 77, 90/95, C and C++ coding.

    Java is another fine object-oriented choice for writing Java applications. This is supported in several development environments. One can make use of the zillions of Java libraries already available.

    (Lisp) Macintosh Common Lisp is a Lisp dialect for creating Carbonized Mac programs. It is one of the oldest languages, and the first major language to provide object-oriented capabilities.

    Marten is a graphical programming language that can be used to compile a Carbon application.

    Pascal has had a long history on the Mac, and Metrowerks' Code Warrior has GNU Pascal integration.

    (Python) MacPython is a full Python development environment that can produces Python scripts or Carbon executables.

    SuperCard, a language and runtime editor which evolved from HyperCard, also allows applications to be exported to stand-alone programs.

    4D is a cross-platform database and programming environment. In addition to web-based applications, you can compile Carbon apps directly using the 4D programming language.

And more options:
    One can export whole database and interface systems out of FileMaker Pro to produce fully functional Carbon apps.

Many of these programs have their source code open and available for other programmers to learn from (see here).