are closely related to applications traditionally written for the Mac OS.
They make use of an API which has been optimized to take advantage of OS X's
ability to allow for memory protection and take advantage of Apple's
graphical interface, Aqua.
Carbon is based on the programming tools available for MacOS 9 and earlier,
and allows a smooth path for bringing applications to OS X.
Apple is providing strong support for this programming environment,
and the libraries provided have been maturing for over 15 years.
C Family of Languages:
is probably the most common core programming language,
created in 1970 to code operating systems.
C code is flexible and highly portable.
a descendant of Algol and Simula and a superset of C.
It allows for a great deal of flexibility in data structures,
including a multiple-inheritance-type object-oriented programming.
BASIC Family of Languages:
provides a compiled BASIC development environment.
Metal is a
BASIC language metacompiler with rich resources.
is a BASIC version, originally for Atari computers.
is a cross-platform BASIC implementation.
is an object-oriented descendant of BASIC.
Programs can cross-compiles for Mac and Windows.
A growing developer community has brought a large number of Carbon
apps to the platform, and the developer tools and libraries are abundant.
is yet another BASIC development environment, taylored to the 2-d game market.
Other Languages (alphabetically):
has Carbon bindings and available out of the box.
is a version of the APL language.
APLX cross-compiles with Windows, Linux and AIX.
can compile using the Carbon frameworks using the EiffelCarbon API.
MacForth is a long-standing
Forth implementation for Macs.
is an object-oriented dialect of Forth derived from Neon.
gives a very powerful development environment for the creation of programs
which can handle high-end scientific, mathematical and visualization needs.
Absoft's editor allows for Fortran 77, 90/95, C and C++ coding.
Java is another fine object-oriented choice for
writing Java applications. This is supported in several development environments.
One can make use of the zillions of Java libraries already available.
(Lisp) Macintosh Common Lisp
is a Lisp dialect for creating Carbonized Mac programs.
It is one of the oldest languages, and the first major language
to provide object-oriented capabilities.
Marten is a graphical
programming language that can be used to compile a Carbon application.
has had a long history on the Mac, and Metrowerks'
has GNU Pascal integration.
is a full Python development environment that can produces Python scripts
or Carbon executables.
a language and runtime editor which evolved from HyperCard, also
allows applications to be exported to stand-alone programs.
4D is a cross-platform database and programming
environment. In addition to web-based applications, you can compile Carbon apps directly
using the 4D programming language.
And more options:
One can export whole database and interface systems out of
FileMaker Pro to produce fully functional Carbon apps.
Many of these programs have their source code open and available for other
programmers to learn from (see here).